Testosterone is the androgenic sexual hormone, which in mammals is secreted primarily by the testes in men and ovaries in women (in much smaller quantities). In bodybuilding is often used as an anabolic steroid in its various forms. Testosterone plays a key role in both men and women for their health and wellbeing. Regulates libido, fertility and muscle mass, increase energy levels and erythrocyte prevent osteoporosis. The male body produces about 50 times more testosterone than women, but women are much more sensitive to it.
Testosterone levels are measured by the concentration of testosterone in the blood. Less than 2% of the hormone is in a free state.
Damage at low levels of testosterone.
Low or no sex drive, low self-esteem, weakness, lack of erection, reduced amount or lack of sperm, increase the size of mammary glands, loss of muscle tone, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis (fragility of the bones) and even death.
Benefits under normal and slightly elevated levels of testosterone.
Protects against obesity, depression, osteoporosis, heart disease, increases sexual desire, promotes the growth of male genitalia during puberty, helps the growth of the body and muscles, increases protein synthesis, increases blood volume, increases spatial reasoning.
Damages in excess levels of testosterone.
Excessive aggressiveness, excessive hair growth, risk of kidney cancer and liver cancer growth of the prostate, heart problems, blood clots in the brain, psychological problems, and menstrual irregularities in women, distortion of the face in a "male", lack ovulation. These side effects are usually a result of adopting the external forms of testosterone doping, especially when its use is improper and frivolous. Chemicals used for treatment of hormone-toxic and often bring with them additional harm.
After entering the bloodstream, testosterone binds to receptors on the muscle cell forming steroid complex moves to the nucleus. He was joined in nuclear DNA starting the process of increased protein synthesis and nitrogen retention. This process sets the stage for the production of protein molecules, in particular muscle cells. Furthermore, decreases the production of cortisol, thereby preserves muscle from catabolic processes.